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The Geographic Proximity with Rwanda and the Parable of the Tribes. .. Table 2: Evidence of Bany2 Leaders' Primary Loyalty to Their. Ethnic Group.

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Eschewing a complex capsule like the one used by Baumgartner, Eustace has nothing between himself and the stratosphere but his space suit. Paragon Space Development Corporation , a company that makes life support devices, coordinated the technical and logistical challenges of the project, which they called StratEx short for Stratospheric Explorer. On Baumgartner's Red Bull jump, he had a really hard time stabilizing himself, as the enormous velocities he accumulated in the thin upper stratosphere came crashing into the thicker air below.

At such high speeds, even the smallest movements make a huge difference, and it becomes very hard to control yourself. The StratEx team overcame this problem by developing a stabilization device, called Saber, that looks like a huge shuttlecock. Skydiving from the stratosphere isn't just useful for daredevils chasing the brink of extremeness.

Grant Anderson, Paragon's president, says the technology it developed would be crucial for helping everybody from tourists to the military go to, and return safely from, the upper atmosphere. Neither Anderson nor MacCallum would say how much the project cost, and at this point we don't know if Eustace paid for it himself, or secured outside funding. MacCallum, a co-founder of Paragon, recently joined World View , a company that hopes to leverage StratEx into balloon-borne, edge-of-space tourism.

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As of publication, Google's search results are still returning Felix Baumgartner's Red Bull Stratos jump as the record for highest sky dive. Time to get back to work, Alan.


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Felix and the Red Rats

When World War I began in , all political prisoners were relocated from Warsaw into Russia proper. Dzerzhinsky was taken to Oryol Prison. He was very concerned about the fate of his wife and son, with whom he did not have any communication. Moreover, Dzerzhinsky was beaten frequently by the Russian prison guards, which caused the permanent disfigurement of his jaw and mouth. In , Dzerzhinsky was moved to the Moscow Butyrka prison , where he was soon hospitalized because the chains that he was forced to wear had caused severe cramps in his legs. Despite the prospects of amputation, Dzerzhinsky recovered and was put to labor sewing military uniforms.

Felix Dzerzhinsky was freed from Butyrka after the February Revolution of Soon after his release, Dzerzhinsky's goal was to organize Polish refugees in Russia and then go back to Poland and fight for the revolution there, writing to his wife: "together with these masses we will return to Poland after the war and become one whole with the SDKPiL". However, he remained in Moscow where he joined the Bolshevik party , writing to his comrades that "the Bolshevik party organization is the only Social Democratic organization of the proletariat, and if we were to stay outside of it, then we would find ourselves outside of the proletarian revolutionary struggle".

Dzerzhinsky endorsed Lenin 's April Theses —demanding uncompromising opposition to the Russian Provisional Government , the transfer of all political authority to the Soviets , and the immediate withdrawal of Russia from the war. Ironically, Dzerzhinsky's brother Stanislaw was murdered on the Dzerzhinsky estate by deserting Russian soldiers that same year.

He then moved from Moscow to Petrograd to begin his new responsibilities. In Petrograd, Dzerzhinsky participated in the crucial session of the Central Committee in October and he strongly endorsed Lenin's demands for the immediate preparation of a rebellion, after which Felix Dzerzhinsky had an active role with the Military Revolutionary Committee during the October Revolution.

With the acquisition of power by the Bolsheviks, Dzerzhinsky eagerly assumed responsibility for making security arrangements at the Smolny Institute where the Bolsheviks had their headquarters. Lenin regarded Felix Dzerzhinsky as a revolutionary hero and appointed him to organize a force to combat internal threats. Dzerzhinsky became its director.

The Cheka received a large number of resources, and became known for ruthlessly pursuing any perceived counterrevolutionary elements.


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  8. As the Russian Civil War expanded, Dzerzhinsky also began organizing internal security troops to enforce the Cheka's authority. The Cheka soon became notorious for mass summary executions , performed especially during the Red Terror and the Russian Civil War. Indeed, while the O GPU was theoretically supposed to act with more restraint than the Cheka, in time its de facto powers grew even greater than those of the Cheka.

    At his office in Lubyanka , Dzerzhinsky kept a portrait of fellow Polish revolutionary Rosa Luxemburg on the wall. Besides his leadership of the secret police, Dzerzhinsky also took on a number of other roles; he led the fight against typhus in , was chair of the Commissariat for Internal Affairs from to , initiated a vast orphanage construction program, [27] chaired the Transport Commissariat, organised the embalming of Lenin's body in and chaired the Society of Friends of Soviet Cinema.

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    Dzerzhinsky became a Bolshevik as late as Therefore, it was wrong to claim, as the official Soviet historians later did, that Dzerzhinsky had been one of Lenin's oldest and most reliable comrades, or that Lenin had exercised some sort of spellbinding influence on Dzerzhinsky and the SDKPiL.

    Lenin and Dzerzhinsky frequently had opposing opinions about many important ideological and political issues of the pre-revolutionary period, and also after the October Revolution. After , Dzerzhinsky would oppose Lenin on such crucial issues as the Brest-Litovsk peace , the trade unions, and Soviet nationality policy , often times coming to blows. During the April Party Conference when Lenin accused Dzerzhinsky of Great-Russian chauvinism he replied: "I can reproach him Lenin with standing at the point of view of the Polish, Ukrainian and other chauvinists.

    From to his death in , Dzerzhinsky was first and foremost a Russian Communist, and Dzerzhinsky's involvement in the affairs of the Polish Communist Party which was founded in was minimal. The energy and dedication that had previously been responsible for the building of the SDKPiL would henceforth be devoted to the priorities of the struggle for Bolshevik power in Russia, to the defense of the revolution during the civil war, and eventually, to the tasks of socialist construction.

    Dzerzhinsky died of a heart attack on 20 July in Moscow , immediately after a two-hour-long speech to the Bolshevik Central Committee during which, visibly quite ill, he violently denounced the United Opposition directed by Leon Trotsky , Grigory Zinoviev , and Lev Kamenev. The Dzerzhinsky estate itself remained inside Poland from to The district was disbanded in at the onset of the Great Purge and most of its administration was executed. His name and image were used widely throughout the KGB and the Soviet Union , and other socialist countries; there were several places named after him.

    In Russia there is the city of Dzerzhinsk , a village of Dzerzhinsk and three other cities called Dzerzhinskiy; in other former Soviet republics, there is a city named for him in Armenia and the aforementioned Dzyarzhynsk in Belarus. In order to comply with decommunization laws [34] the Ukrainian cities Dzerzhynsk and Dniprodzerzhynsk were renamed Toretsk and Kamianske in February and May The Dzerzhinskiy Tractor Works in Stalingrad were named in his honor and became a scene of bitter fighting during the Second World War.

    The FED camera, produced from to , is named for him, [36] as was the FD class steam locomotive. Sculpted in by Yevgeny Vuchetich , it served as a Moscow landmark during late Soviet times.

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    Felix Kindermann

    Symbolically, the Memorial society erected a memorial to the victims of the Gulag using a simple stone from Solovki in the White Sea beside the Iron Felix statue on 30 October A mock-up of the removal of Dzerzhinsky's statue can be found in the entrance hall of the International Spy Museum in Washington, D.

    The figure of Dzerzhinsky remains controversial in Russian society. Between and six proposals called for the return of the statue to its plinth. The Monument Art Commission of the Moscow City Duma rejected the proposals due to concerns that the proposed return would cause "unnecessary tension" in society. In April , the Moscow authorities stated that they would renovate the "Iron Felix" monument in full and put the statue on a list of monuments to be renovated, as well as officially designating it an object of cultural heritage.

    A smaller bust of Dzerzhinsky in the courtyard of the Moscow police headquarters at Petrovka 38 was restored in November police officers had removed this bust on 22 August A foot bronze replica of the original Iron Felix statue was placed on the grounds of the military academy in Minsk , Belarus, in May In on the th anniversary of Dzerzhinsky's birth, a monument to Dzerzhinsky was erected in the city of Ryazan , Russia. In , the Government of Belarus rebuilt the manor house of Dzerzhinovo, where Dzerzhinsky was born, and established a museum.

    Annually, the graduating class of the KDB academy holds its swearing-in at the manor. In , the manor had been destroyed and family members including Dzerzhinsky's brother Kazimierz were killed by the Germans, because of their support for the Polish Home Army. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    For other uses, see Dzerzhinsky disambiguation. Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet politician. The Soviet Revolution: — New York : International Universities Press. Secret Societies. Mysteries and Conspiracies. Retrieved 27 May Dzerzhinsky was the mastermind behind the Red Terror that allowed the Communists to seize and hold on to power [ Soviet Studies History.

    The number killed throughout Soviet territory by the Red Terror, the execution of prisoners, and revenge against former Whites or their supporters possibly involved the murder of between , and 3,, people [ London: Routledge. Estimates of the total number of executed victims of the Terror vary. Rat'kovskii puts the figure ast 8, for the period from 30 August until the end of the year, Nicolas Werth at between 10, and 15, The majority of the Terror's targets were former Tsarist officers and representatives of the Tsarist regime.

    Feliks Dzerzhinsky and the Cheka". Spy Chiefs.

    Matmos - For Felix (And All The Rats)

    Georgetown University Press. The Cheka's first mass operation—'Decossackization,' the deportation in April of an estimated , people—was more akin to the actions of an invading army than a police measure; it was carried out to secure the southern front against the White armies. Victims of the Bolsheviks: GRIN Verlag. In the course of the so called deCossackization, i.