Lastly, he examines how New Delhi is trying to establish itself as one of the main players on the world scene while at the same time maintaining a completely new style of dialogue with Washington.
Politique de l'emploi et durée du chômage : une comparaison franco-suédoise - Persée
The portrait of India sketched by Jean-Luc Racine is of a giant who is gradually waking up, of a country that, stifling its internal tensions and inequalities, is at the stage of rapid take-off and is preparing to play a major role in the world of the future. He therefore argues that the discipline should be restructured, taking as the starting point a consideration of the economic actors and the areas that they act upon. Here he discusses its main ideas, in particular: However, Amartya Sen's book goes much further than these general findings.
At the end of the Bureau of Labor Statistics BLS, responsible for US employment statistics published a series of projections for employment in the United States between now and Charles du Granrut presents some of the main findings here, showing that, even if the rate of growth slows down, the present situation of virtually full employment is likely to continue.
According to the BLS, the American economy has been "tertiarized" and the trends noted since will probably be maintained in the coming decade. However, as Charles du Granrut stresses, "the image of an American economy based largely on services is too simplistic": Lastly, the nature of employment in the United States is also changing: This is a time of "new growth", thanks to the IT information technology and the widespread confidence, indeed conviction, that we are at the beginning of a new Kondratiev upturn, launched into a new era of stable prosperity.
Michel Godet, sceptical as always of generally accepted ideas, warns us to be cautious. True, Europe is currently enjoying a new growth spurt, which furthermore has created new jobs. The impact of the IT obviously should not be overlooked, since they have undoubtedly helped in the development of a new economy, in particular by stimulating competition and therefore lower prices. Yet the new growth should not be overestimated on the basis of the Nasdac and the stock market bubble which will ultimately burst.
In any case, Godet argues, convinced that human beings are the only real source of wealth and that the future depends on what they want, the growth cycle theories especially that of Kondratiev are illusory. The new growth cannot continue without generating adverse side-effects and consequently in Europe, with its ageing population, weak and fluctuating demand. People are being exposed to, and are more aware of, rising levels of transport noise, which despite higher standards and the progress made by the motor manufacturers is likely to get even worse as road traffic, in particular, increases.
Having made this worrying observation, the authors look at how this nuisance can be assessed in monetary terms and how much we are prepared to pay in order to overcome this decline in the quality of our environment. They demonstrate that various methods of evaluation exist both "hedonistic" and "contingent" analyses , and their results are remarkably similar and reliable.
However, they stress that little notice is taken of these results in decision-making processes, partly because the views of special interest groups often carry more weight than more objective criteria.
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Finally, the authors offer suggestions for possible action, drawing on the experience of other countries. They examine how better use might be made of such studies in decision-making, which should also take account of the "public good", whose definition is often a source of confusion. The Italian industrial areas districts with small and medium-sized firms, linked by local networks are an excellent model.
Their micro-enterprises, well known for their competitiveness, their entrepreneurial spirit, their capacity to innovate and skill in adapting to the market, are generally the heirs of the long Italian tradition of craftsmanship; they have now organized themselves into networks that make them extremely efficient.
As Florence Vidal clearly demonstrates, these Italian industrial areas are flourishing and make a major contribution to the good reputation of Italian goods.
Économie de l'Irlande
It was realised that if unemployed people were paid for doing nothing without being expected to fill the vacancies that arose, there would be higher unemployment. In Denmark, unemployment was cut by more than half with no increase in vacancies, and in Britain and the Netherlands unemployment at given vacancies fell by 3 or 4 percentage points.
It is due to supply-side problems in mobilising the unemployed.
Benefits must be paid from the same office that provides job-search assistance and monitors job search. The unemployed person must attend the office in person regularly. It is every two weeks in Britain, and more often in Switzerland. The massive turnover in the labour market should make it possible to secure offers of regular jobs for most workers, if the office tries hard enough. The most useful in descending order are:.
But this overlooks the fundamental aim of the subsidy which is to mobilise the hard to place, thus releasing for other new vacancies the easy-to-place workers who would otherwise have taken the job given to the subsidised workers.
One problem is always the attitudes of those who work in the benefit offices and the employment offices. Unless those who are administering the reform believe in it, it will not work.
It took the British employment service some ten years to believe that what they did would really affect how many people were in work. To change the mindset is essential. From the new science of happiness we now know enough of the causes of human happiness to make some quite firm statements. That is why unemployment is so devastating, and why we would much prefer it if people were in work. Their job satisfaction depends on their income from work but also on the other qualities of the work: the amount of autonomy, job security, human contact, quiet, and stress. Research on job satisfaction tells us how much this matters.
The longitudinal research evidence shows clearly that ex post most people who get jobs feel better than people who remain unemployed even if ex ante they did not always expect this. Another important group is the sick and disabled. As the Employment Outlook shows, the number of working age people on disability benefits in most countries exceeds the number on unemployment benefit.
The numbers have been rising in most countries, even though the health of the population has been improving. So why not help them?
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In seven employment districts there have been so-called Pathways to Work pilots, with other matched districts acting as controls. In the pilot districts every new person coming on to what we call incapacity benefits receives an hour-long interview with an employment advisor each month from months three to eight of his spell on benefit. The lessons are obvious. In Britain we have more mentally ill people on incapacity benefits than the total number of people on unemployment benefits. They mostly have either clinical depression or chronic anxiety disorders like agoraphobia.
Unlike the physically disabled, they are not able to work unless they are cured of their illness. This may be because few people understand the size of the problem. Epidemiological surveys of the population show that in advanced countries at least one in six of the population would be diagnosed as mentally ill.
See Tables 2 and 3. Table 1: Cost-benefit analysis of provision of cognitive behavioural therapy 11 sessions to persons suffering from clinical depression or chronic anxiety disorders average values per patient treated. Source: Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, As before, phobia only includes agoraphobia and social phobia.
Table 3: Days per year lost due to sickness absence per person of each type in employment. The most obvious is the problem of regional imbalances, leading to high unemployment in East Germany, Southern Italy and Southern Spain. So how can demand for labour be increased in high employment regions? Since employer subsidies are very expensive, the key solution has to be relative wage flexibility.
As earlier OECD reports have shown, countries which use apprenticeship as the major route to non-university skills have lower youth unemployment and better transitions from school to work O ecd , The central idea must be of rights and responsibilities. The right to unemployment benefits and job-search assistance must be complemented by the responsibility to look hard and to accept work when it is available.